Book Details

Anatomy for Litigators, with 2010 Supplement

By Sam D. Hodge, Jr.

  • Softcover
  • 498 pp.
  • ISBN: 0-8318-0866-7
  • Order Code BK40K
  • $32.00

Examine the body of evidence...Anatomy for Litigators the award winning* ALI-ABA book has a new 2010 Supplement.

*Winner of an Outstanding Achievement Award from the Association for Continuing Legal Education

Written by a skilled litigator who possesses vast medical knowledge, Anatomy For Litigators is presented in an easy-to-understand style with more than 350 pictures, illustrations, and charts that reinforce the concepts. The just released 2010 Supplement contains 5 brand new chapters.



An excellent desk book and initial reference work for litigators...

- Legal Information Alert

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Written specifically for attorneys who need to understand human anatomy, this book focuses on the legal aspects of anatomy and injuries to particular parts of the body. Practitioners gain valuable insight into, and an understanding of, the medical/legal issues in a personal injury claim. The author provides specific examples of the legal significance of injuries to particular parts of the body.

Anatomy for Litigators helps readers:

Understand how different parts of the body work

Evaluate the seriousness of an injury and value cases

Explain an injury to the jury in a fashion they will understand

Decipher medical records

Learn how most common injuries occur

Understand surveys concerning jury verdicts in injury cases

Understand the limitations of diagnostic tests

And more!

Most chapters contain three discrete units. The first provides a medical explanation for a specific body part. Internet references are provided so the reader may download the original source if needed for research, consultation, and litigation purposes. Concepts also are reinforced with illustrations. The next part of the chapter examines the legal issues involving a topic. Selected court cases provide the reader with theories of liability or defenses. Each chapter also contains a summary of the topics and a checklist of legal research tools, including citations to annotations, articles, and practice guides.


The 2010 Supplement explains:

The Circulatory System and Routes of Drug Administration

Medical issues in Wyeth v. Levine regarding FDA-approved labeling of drugs

Definition of an “IV push” and its significance in litigation

Enzyme that can be detected in the blood when a person has a heart attack

Why failure to diagnose an abdominal aortic aneurysm (“AAA”) is potentially devastating

Important litigation tip when a patient is discharged after undergoing a cardiac catheterization

Diagnostic Imaging of the Low Back: Limitations and Pitfalls

“Slipped disk,” and why it is a frequent source of dispute in a compensation setting

“Myofascial trigger points” and their significance in muscular pain

Why counsel should procure the preaccident health records when a patient complains of low back pain

How two different radiologists could come to two different conclusions after reviewing a diagnostic image of a patient’s low back

Why “discograms” are controversial in a litigation setting

The Anatomy of a Controversy: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Why complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is considered “the most controversial and least understood of all chronic pain problems”

Various biases of experts who diagnose and treat CRPS

Use of laboratory testing for CRPS in the context of clinical history and findings

Why some patients who have CRPS are accused of malingering

How CRPS is handled in a workers’ compensation setting

Review of medical malpractice claims in the context of CRPS

The Anatomy of a Whiplash Injury

Why the diagnosis of whiplash has been controversial for over 50 years

Forces on the body in general and the cervical spine in particular during a motor vehicle accident

How the nonspecific nature of whiplash pain makes a proper diagnosis challenging

Why the term “whiplash” is considered so emotionally charged

Why the use of a neck brace is considered “a powerful symbol of fraud”

The Physician as Expert Witness: The Medical Profession’s Attempts at Self-Regulation

Distinction between information gathered to treat a patient and that which is needed to provide expert testimony in court

Role of medical specialty boards in formulating ethical codes

Use of affirmation statements as a litigation tool

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About the Author

Samuel D. Hodge, Jr. is Professor and Chair, Department of Legal Studies, Temple University. Professor Hodge teaches both law and anatomy. is a professor at Temple University, where he chairs the Department of Legal Studies. He has received multiple teaching honors over the years and has been designated a Temple University Great Teacher and a Master Teacher by the American Academy of Legal Studies. His interactive teaching style has been the subject of stories in the New York Times, the Philadelphia Daily News, the Chronicle of Higher Education, National Public Radio, and television. He lectures nationally on anatomy and trauma, and his presentations are frequently broadcast to multiple locations. Audiences have included judges, lawyers, physicians, and insurance professionals. He has authored more than 80 articles and trial manuals on medical/legal topics including Defending the Back Injury Claim, A Primer on Diagnostic Imaging, A Litigation Primer on the Knee, and A Proper Analysis of a Hospital Chart Can Reveal Valuable Investigative and Medical Information. Professor Hodge has participated in the production of a number of educational videotapes and audiotapes. Other books include Law and Society, Thermography and Personal Injury Litigation, and The Legal Environment of the New Millennium. He has also co-authored a supplement for Orthopedic Disability and Expert Testimony, and has written chapters on the Direct and Cross-Examination of an Orthopedic Surgeon for the text, Preparing Orthopedic Disability Cases. The author graduated from Temple University Law School in 1974 and was admitted to the Pennsylvania Bar at that time. He obtained a Dean’s Certificate from the Graduate Legal Studies Division of Temple Law School in 1979.


Contributors to the 2010 Supplement...

Jack E. Hubbard, PhD, MD, is Adjunct Professor of Neurology, University of Minnesota School of Medicine. Dr. Hubbard is in private practice with the Minneapolis Clinic of Neurology and is board certified in both neurology and pain medicine.


Avi J. Cohen is a third year law student at the Temple University Beasley School of Law.

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A breakdown of Anatomy for Litigators:


The first part of this book deals with the nuts and bolts an attorney needs to know to understand anatomy. The text starts with an overview of anatomy while the reader is provided with a foundation on how the systems of the body work individually and collectively.


The next part explains how medical records are organized and offers litigation tips on how to secure these records and unravel their secrets. Because of the explosion of diagnostic tests and physician reliance on these studies, another chapter explains these procedures. The limitations of these tests are presented with an eye toward cross-examination. An understanding of the limitations of diagnostic imaging can help refute claims that an abnormal finding is related to an accident or trauma.


Later chapters examine the individual body parts that account for most personal injury cases. Chapters are presented on the upper and lower extremities, as well as on the trunk area. Other topics include the nervous system, the spine, and the ligaments, teeth, shoulder, and hand, as well as the hip, knee, ankle, and foot.


The final portion of the book looks at the independent medical examination with a focus on the orthopedic examination. Information is presented on the various medical specialties, the board certification process, and on ascertaining which type of doctor is right for the independent medical examination. A listing of the official board certifications is provided to help litigators evaluate the credentials of an examining, treating, or testifying physician. The chapter on orthopedic examination explains procedures such as straight leg raising, flexion and extension testing, and abduction and adduction. The text is reinforced with pictures of these tests to assist counsel in grasping the concepts and to provide a quick reference source for future use, especially in the courtroom.

Anatomy For Litigators includes contributions from four doctors, a dentist, and a registered nurse!


Special Litigation Book Bundle: Get Anatomy for Litigators with 2010 Supplement, Cross-Examining Doctors, Second Edition, and Red Flags: A Lawyer’s Handbook on Legal Ethics, Second Edition, for only $349 (a $96 savings)!     ADD TO CART

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Abbreviated Table of Contents


Chapter 1: A Lawyer's Guide To Anatomy

The Study Of Anatomy • Anatomical Terminology

30 figures

Chapter 2: Unraveling The Mystery Of Medical Records

The Need To Obtain The Medical Records • Counsel For The Plaintiff’s Need To Obtain The Records • Defense Counsel’s Need To Obtain The Records • Types Of Medical Records • Physician Office Notes • Ambulance Record • Hospital Chart • Emergency Room Record • Patient Admission • History And Physical • Progress Notes • Discharge Summary • Nurses’ Notes • Order Sheets • Operative Report • Miscellaneous Records • Medication • Research And Investigative Tips • Background Investigation • Internet Searches • Retention Of Medical Records

Chapter 3: A Primer On Diagnostic Imaging

Diagnostic Radiology • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) • Nuclear Medicine • Ultrasound Imaging • Electrodiagnostic Testing

28 figures: X-Ray Film • Pelvis • Muscle Spasm • Bone Density • Cerebral Angiogram • Normal And Abnormal Myelogram • CT Of The Abdomen • Three Views Of The Vertebrae • CT Scans • Discogram • MRI Of The Cervical Spine • Central Herniated Disc • Bone Scan • Liver And Spleen Scan • PET Scan • Ultrasound Imaging • Electromyography • Electromyography

Chapter 4: Skeletal Ligaments By Joseph Bernstein, M.D., and Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esq.

Introduction • Injuries To The Ligaments • The Ankle • The Knee • The Shoulder • Legal Discussion

14 figures: Ligament • Grade III Sprain Of A Ligament • Ankle Joint • Deltoid Ligament • Anterior Talofibular Ligament • The Knee • The Soft Tissue Structures Of The Knee • The Mechanism Of Injury • Diagnosis Of Knee Injuries • Drawer Test • Valgus Testing • Apprehension Test • The Shoulder • Apprehension Test

Chapter 5: Bones, Fractures, And More

The Anatomy Of Bone • Trauma To The Bone • Legal Considerations

16 figures: Bones Of The Skeletal System • Cross-Section Of Bone • Long Bone • Short Bone • Flat Bone • Irregular Bone • Bone Cells • Epicondyle • Shoulder Blade • Trochanter • Condyle • Facet • Femur • Foramen • Fractures • Healed Fracture

Chapter 6: Neuroanatomy By Michael A. Saulino, M.D., and Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esq.

Introduction • The Divisions Of The Nervous System • The Brain • Nerve Cells • Hemispheres And Lobes • Meninges • The Epidural Space • Ventricles • Blood Supply Of The Brain • Spinal Nerves • Arteries Of The Spinal Cord • Autonomic Nervous System • Injuries To The Central Nervous System • Legal Discussion

15 figures: Divisions Of The Nervous System • Peripheral Nervous System • Spinal Nerves • Brachial Plexus • Reflex Arc • The Brain • Neuron • Spinal Nerve • Hemispheres And Lobes Of The Brain • Subarachnoid Space • Blood Supply Of The Brain • Arteries Of The Brain • Aneurysm • Spinal Cord • Injuries To The Central Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Back Injury Claim

Anatomy Of The Spine • Causes Of Back Pain • Legal Considerations

34 figures: Spine • Vertebrae • Major Regions Of The Spine • Atlas/Axis • Rotation Of Neck • Thoracic Vertebrae • Lumbar Region • Sacrum/Coccyx • Ligaments That Hold The Spine Together • Posterior Longitudinal Ligament • Curves Of The Spine • Lordotic Curve • Parts Of A Vertebra • Vertebrae • Discs • Herniation • Herniated Disc • Central Herniation • Bulging Disc • Bulge • Spinal Nerve • Spinal Cord • Thecal Sac • Dermatome Chart • Degeneration • Spondylosis • Spondylolisthesis • Vertebral Fractures • Torticollis • Laminectomy • Discectomy • Endoscopic Discectomy • Spinal Fusion • Diagnostic Imaging

Chapter 8: Anatomy Of A Chest Injury

Anatomy Of The Chest • Injuries To The Thorax • Soft Tissue Trauma To The Chest • Fractures • Intrathoracic Injuries • Legal Issues Involving Chest Injuries

12 figures: Anatomy Of The Chest • The Rib • The Sternum • Thoracic Vertebrae • Movement Of The Chest • Thoracic Cage/Respiration And Breathing • Rib Fracture • Flail Chest • Fractured Sternum • Fractured Vertebrae • Fractured Thoracic Spine • A Pneumothorax

Chapter 9: A Litigation Primer On The Shoulder

The Anatomy • The Bones Of The Shoulder • Shoulder Injuries • Litigating A Rotator Cuff Injury

8 figures: The Shoulder • The Scapula • The Humerus • The Rotator Cuff • Supraspinatus • Supraspinatus • The Joints Of The Shoulder • The Bursa

Chapter 10: A Litigation Primer On Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

The Problem • Anatomy • Symptoms • Causes • Diagnosis • Treatment • Litigation Tips

6 figures: Hand Anatomy • Nerve Compression • Area Served By The Median Nerve • Tinel’s (10-4A) And Phalen’s Sign (10-4B) • Durkin’s Compression Test • Two-Point Discrimination

Chapter 11: The Structures Of The Hand By Pedro Beredjiklian, M.D.

Introduction • Bones Of The Hand • Joints • Ligaments • Muscles And Tendons • Nerves • Arteries • Legal Considerations

24 figures: Surface Anatomy Of The Hand • Bones Of The Hand • Bones Of The Hand • Carpal Bones • The Scaphoid Bone • Hand Surfaces • Interphalangeal And Metacarpophalangeal Joints • Extension/Flexion • Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex • Collateral Ligaments • Extensor Retinaculum • Palmaris Longus Tendon • Intrinsic Muscles Of The Hand • Extensor Digitorum Communis • Mallet Finger • Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus And Brevis • Flexor Digitorum Superficialis • Digital Sheaths Of Fingers • Palmar Interossei • Lumbricals • Median Nerve • Ulnar Nerve • Sensory Nerve Distribution • Arteries Of The Hand

Chapter 12: The Anatomy Of A Hip Fracture (And More)

Anatomy Of The Hip • Problems Affecting The Hip • Hip Replacement Surgery • Hip Injuries In A Compensation Setting

10 figures: Anatomy Of The Hip • Hip Joint • Femur • Pelvis • Pelvis • Soft Tissue • Iliopsoas Muscle • Hip Fractures • Osteoarthritis • Prosthetic

Chapter 13: A Primer On The Knee

The Anatomy • The Injury • The Diagnosis • Knee Surgery • Litigation Tips

30 figures: Knee Is A Hinged Joint • The Bones • Soft Tissues • Cruciate Ligaments • Valgus And Varus • Lateral Collateral Ligament • The Menisci • Limited Vascular Area Of Meniscus • Basic Musculature • The Injury • Grading • Meniscus Injuries • Knee Trauma; "Terrible Triad" • Meniscus; Degeneration • Patella • Chondromalacia: Blister; Grade III Changes • Patella • Knee Fractures • Fracture Of The Condyle • The Diagnosis • Drawer Sign • Lachman Test • McMurray Test • Arthroscopy Of Knee • Meniscal Repairs • Ligament Repairs • Patella Tendon Graft • Tibial Osteotomy • Knee Prosthetic • Knee Prosthetic

Chapter 14: The Ankle Is A Bone: Fact Or Fiction?

The Anatomy Of The Ankle • Ankle Trauma • Legal Considerations

14 figures: Ankle As A Carpenter’s Mortise • The Malleolus • MRI Of The Ankle Joint • Subtalar Joint • Ankle Ligaments • Deltoid Ligament • Achilles Tendon • Ankle Sprain • Ankle Fracture • Achilles Tendon Rupture • Peroneal Tendon • Retinaculum

Chapter 15: The Anatomy Of The Foot

The Anatomy Of The Foot • Foot Abnormalities • Legal Considerations

16 figures: Weight Distribution Across Foot • Foot Surfaces • Major Parts Of The Foot • Foot Bones • MRI Of Foot • Longitudinal Arch • Transverse Arch • Ligaments Of The Foot • Fascia • Soleus Muscle • Foot Nerves • Foot Fractures • Bunion • Hammertoe • Heel Spur

Chapter 16: The Anatomy Of A Tooth By Jeffrey Staller, D.D.S., and Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esq.

Structure Of Teeth • Injuries To The Teeth • Legal Considerations

15 figures: Tooth Parts • Teeth And Their Roots • Maxillary Arch • Mandibular Arch • Anterior View • Primary Teeth • Permanent Teeth • Cavity • Tooth Abscess • Fractured Tooth • Root Canal • Elevator Tool • Bridge • Implant

Chapter 17: The Independent Medical Examination By Therese A. Gentile, M.S.N., M.Ed., R.N., and Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esq

The Ideal Independent Medical Evaluator • Board Certification And Credentials • The Ideal Specialist • Legal Considerations • Conclusion

1 Figure: Babinski Sign

Chapter 18: The Independent Orthopaedic Medical Examination By Noubar Didizian, M.D., and Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esq.  

Introduction • The Scope Of The Independent Medical Examination • Medical History • Physical Examination • Diagnostic Studies • Pictorial Display Of The Orthopaedic Examination • The Orthopaedic Surgeon As An Expert Witness • Legal Considerations

Includes 123 figures


The Circulatory System And Routes Of Drug Administration
Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esquire, and Jack E. Hubbard, PhD, MD

Diagnostic Imaging of the Low Back: Limitations and Pitfalls
Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esquire

The Anatomy Of A Controversy: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome
Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esquire, and Jack E. Hubbard, PhD, MD

The Anatomy Of A Whiplash Injury
Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esquire, and Jack E. Hubbard, PhD, MD

The Physician As Expert Witness: The Medical Profession’s Attempts at Self-Regulation
Samuel D. Hodge, Jr., Esquire, and Avi J. Cohen 

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