Bacal's Internet Legal Research Guide

APPENDIX 2: Research in Nine Areas of Law (Early 21st Century)

BANKRUPTCY LAW

CORPORATE AND SECURITIES LAW

INTERNET/E-COMMERCE

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

HEALTH LAW

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW

REAL ESTATE LAW

TAX LAW

BANKRUPTCY LAW

Cornell University provides some excellent materials at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/bankruptcy.html. Another outstanding site devoted solely to bankruptcy and debtor-creditor law is the American Bankruptcy Institute’s site at http://www.abiworld.org, which includes bankruptcy headlines, court opinions, a review of the bankruptcy literature, and a number of interesting feature articles related to bankruptcy law. Both of these sites include references to case materials, statutes and regulations, articles and links to other Internet sites.

Supreme Court bankruptcy decisions, Circuit Court opinions, and analyses of the various opinions are found at a number of different sites on the Internet, including the above-referenced Cornell site and the American Bankruptcy Institute’s ("ABI") site, located at http://www.abiworld.org. Another useful site for following the status of major Chapter 11 bankruptcies is offered by BankruptcyData.com at http://www.bankruptcydata.com.

You can find the Bankruptcy Code and the Bankruptcy Rules by accessing the Cornell or ABI sites.

The Bankruptcy Lawfinder at http://www.lawtrove.com/bankruptcy provides useful links to case law, statutes, regulations and to many bankruptcy related legal resources. Another useful site providing similar information is the InterNet Bankruptcy Library, which can be found at http://bankrupt.com.

There are also some useful news-oriented sites with up to date business and legal information regarding bankruptcy and insolvency issues. For example, the Findlaw.com website has a user-friendly and useful bankruptcy section located at http://bankruptcy.findlaw.com/bankruptcy/bankruptcy_overview.html . This website contains explanations of bankruptcy law terms and definitions, and a convenient question and answer format relating to various aspects of bankruptcy law. The Findlaw site also provides access to statutory information and relevant articles, as well as links to other websites.

In addition, members of ABI can obtain current bankruptcy-related news at the ABI’s website at http://www.abiworld.org/headlines/headlines.asp l.

Finally, Emory University Law School publishes the Bankruptcy Developments Journal at http://www.law.emory.edu/BDJ/bdjhome.asp , which is another good source of information pertaining to bankruptcy law.

CORPORATE AND SECURITIES LAW

Cornell University has a number of corporate-related links on its site, including the text of securities laws, certain state corporation statutes, a searching capability for federal regulations for Banks and Banking, Business Credit and Assistance and the SEC, recent federal and state court decisions, and links to the SEC and IRS. The Cornell site for corporate law is located at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/corporations.html.

Two of the leading sites (Law News Network and Law.com) have merged and can be viewed at http://www.law.com.

Access to substantial amounts of securities information and references can be found at the SEC site, located at http://www.sec.gov. Additionally, SEC filings can be found at http://www.sec.gov/edgar/searchedgar/webusers.htm.

Another good source of information is available at the EDGAR Online website, which proclaims to be the leading source of information on SEC filings and "related business intelligence." This site, which requires pay subscriptions for certain services, can be found at http://www.edgar-online.com. Additionally, some of the same content is available free of charge at http://www.freeedgar.com. While the Free Edgar website serves as a free alternative to the Edgar Online website, the Edgar Online site offers some additional amenities not found on the free site.

The Center for Corporate Law of the University of Cincinnati College of Law has created a "Securities Lawyer’s Deskbook" available at http://www.law.uc.edu/CCL/. This reference provides the text of federal securities laws and certain regulations and forms.

There are some interesting corporate and securities related websites posted by practicing attorneys, including http://www.seclaw.com . The Seclaw.com website is a good resource regarding securities law in general.

Finally, NASD Regulation, Inc. has an excellent website at http://www.nasdr.com, containing a wide variety of information relating to investing and the securities industry.

INTERNET/E-COMMERCE

There are many good e-commerce websites to choose from, with new websites and services being introduced all the time.

One good resource for E-Commerce law is the FindLaw Cyberspace Law Center. This webpage, part of the Findlaw.com array of resources, can be found at http://www.findlaw.com/01topics/10cyberspace/index.html . The FindLaw Cyberspace Center is sub-divided into various sub-sections relating to topics such as , computer crime, domain names, e-commerce, email, freedom of expression, ISP immunity, jurisdiction, and privacy, among other topics. This site also provides access to the Findlaw CyberSpace Law News, which contains "the latest news updated day and night."

Findlaw also has a good section on technology law, located at http://corporate.findlaw.com/industry/technology/index.htmlhttp://techdeals.biz.findlaw.com, containing additional information relating to the Internet/E-commerce field, including details of recent deals as well as sample forms and agreements.

In addition, the combined Law.com website at http://www.law.com (formed under the merger of Law News Network and Law.com) contains a good Tech Law Practice Center, with an emphasis on Internet-related issues.

The Standard’s website, located at http://www.thestandard.com, is another good website featuring information on Internet developments. This site provides up-to-the-minute news updates on a variety of issues concerning the E-commerce industry, including business as well as legal issues and developments. This website also offers subscriptions to a number of free daily electronic newsletters that can be delivered to your e-mail address. These include newsletters providing news and analysis of general Internet developments, as well as more specific newsletters dealing with law and the Internet, Internet market moves, Internet and the entertainment industry, and a variety of other options.

Another good source for up-to-date Internet news is the Wired News site, located at http://www.wired.com. Like The Standard site, the Wired News site is also updated continuously throughout the day as developments occur. The Wired News website (also similar to The Standard) is presented in a user-friendly format, in which capsule summaries of the stories appear on the front page, with links to additional information about the stories.

The Bureau of National Affairs, Inc. provides another excellent electronic newsletter on Internet developments. The BNA newsletter, entitled the Internet Law Daily, is a free e-mail publication which provides summaries of the day’s Internet Law news. The Internet Law Daily, edited by Professor Michael Geist of the University of Ottawa Law School, also contains links to additional information on each of the day’s news items. You can subscribe to this free service by a link directly from the BNA’s Internet Law News located at http://ecommercecenter.bna.com.

The BNA E-commerce Center also provides subscription information for BNA’s fee-based electronic publications, such as the Electronic Commerce & Law Report. The Electronic Commerce & Law Report provides excellent news and analysis on a wide variety of E-commerce issues. Other good fee-based Internet publications include The Internet Lawyer (see http://www.internetlawyer.com), and The Internet Law Researcher (see http://www.internetlawresearcher.com/).

Additional information regarding Internet law and policy can be found at the website for the UCLA Online Institute for Cyberspace Law and Policy, located at http://www.gseis.ucla.edu/iclp/hp.html. This website provides a timeline of recent developments, along with access to relevant case law and statutes, a history of cyberspace law, perspectives on cyberspace law and policy, and links to other resources.

Finally, the Harvard Law School-sponsored Berkman Center for Internet & Society provides another valuable website, accessible at http://cyber.law.harvard.edu/. The Harvard/Berkman site provides news and commentary on a variety of Internet developments and issues facing society. The site also provides access to the Berkman Center’s free electronic newsletter, entitled "The Filter." This newsletter, published twice a month, is focused on public-interest Internet issues and policy, and contains feature reports, interviews and reader-submitted essays regarding the evolution of the Internet and its affect on the law, public policy, politics, culture and the media.

ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

The University of Indiana presents its "WWW Virtual Library" of environmental law resources and materials at http://www.law.indiana.edu/v-lib/. This site allows its viewers to search the virtual library, or browse by topic or type or search by information type. Cornell University’s Legal Information Institute also contains links to, among other things, statutes, regulations, state and federal agencies and recent Supreme Court decisions at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/environmental.html. In addition, Cornell has set up pages related to pollution and natural resources that can be accessed from this site.

One of the better sites in terms of overall coverage of environmental law issues is the FindLaw site at http://www.findlaw.com/01topics/13environmental/index.html. Another searchable site for environmental law issues is maintained by the Environmental Law Institute at http://www.eli.org.

In addition, the Hieros Gamos website at http://www.hg.org has a useful environmental law section. One area is devoted to world environmental law and another emphasizes the United States.

The ABA Section of Natural Resources, Energy and Environmental Law also maintains its own site, which can be found at http://www.abanet.org/environ/home.html.

Many environmental "activist" organizations also maintain websites. For example, the National Resources Defense Council’s site at http://www.nrdc.org/legislation/legwatch.asp is good for tracking federal legislation through the House and Senate. Also, the Environmental Defense Fund maintains a "scorecard" site devoted to information about chemical pollutants at http://www.scorecard.org. Additionally, Earthjustice (see www.earthjustice.org) and EarthLaw (see http://www.hugheshome.net/mark/elaw/) have merged to form one of the largest non-profit public-interest environmental law groups. The Center for International Environmental law site ( http://www.ciel.org ) provides information about global environmental law issues such as climate change, biodiversity, and trade and sustainable development.

Finally, access the Environmental Protection Agency’s fully searchable database at http://www.epa.gov which features EPA topics, law and regulations and information sources.

HEALTH LAW

Cornell University’s site provides a substantial number of health-related links, including areas covering food and drugs, Medicaid, Medicare and mental health. These links can be obtained by going to http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/health.html. You can also access the U.S. Code for Food and Drugs, as well as information regarding Hospitals and Asylums, and other topics, at Cornell’s website.

Another good health law website can be found at the combined Law.com/Law News Network site at http://www.law.com. The Law.com website contains commentary, practice tools, and decisions on various health related issues, and is easy to navigate. The American Bar Association Health Law Section also maintains a website, located at http://www.abanet.org/health, which contains health law information and updates and related links to other sites.

The Medical Litigation site located at www.medneg.com is a medico-legal database that is updated daily for professionals. This site offers a searchable database for cases, often within days of a judgment being handed down. The site also offers articles, settlements and news.

The Food and Drug Institute maintains a site that it describes as a "neutral forum for the examination of the laws, regulations and policies related to drugs, medical devices, other healthcare technologies and foods." This site can be accessed at http://www.fdli.org/. The Health Administration Responsibility Project has set up a site for patients, doctors and attorneys devoted specifically to HMO malpractice cases, strategies and news. This site can be found at http://www.harp.org.

Many websites can be found devoted to various business issues in the healthcare field. One of the more interesting presentations has been created by the American Hospital Association, American Hospital Publishing, Inc. and Healthcare Forum. Together they created the Health Forum site, which provides access to a variety of information and communications relating to the healthcare field, including educational conferences, publications, statistics and data, community health initiatives, and a forum leadership network. The Health Forum site can be accessed at http://www.healthforum.com. In addition, this "Health Forum" network, in connection with the AHA, provides a useful website located at http://www.ahadata.com with other information and data relating to the healthcare industry. However, the site does charge a fee for access to the data. Additionally, the Health Forum and AHA provide access to the most recent week’s issue of the AHA News at http://www.ahanews.com, along with capsule summaries of the latest news stories of the day. At this site, you can also search for articles from prior issues dating back to 1995.

If you are looking for an online guide to medical dictionaries and glossaries, you can try MedTerms.com at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/hp.asp or the On-line Medical Dictionary at http://www.online-medical-dictionary.org/. You can check the status of a physician’s board certifications at the American Board of Medical Specialists site at http://www.certifieddoctor.org.

If you need to find biomedical information, the HealthGate site contains bibliographic databases, reference books and pre-compiled searches of medical literature. This website can be found at http://www.healthgate.com/.

The Food and Drug Administration maintains its site at http://www.fda.gov. Other government agencies that maintain websites include the Center for Disease Control (see http://www.cdc.gov), and the National Institute of Health (see http://www.nih.gov).

Another good source of information is the http://www.medscape.com website, which includes weekly headlines in the medical field and in-depth spotlights on various topics. The Medscape.com website also contains searchable databases relating to different aspects of the medical profession, as well as links to other resources and websites.

Current health law news can be found at http://www.healthlaw.org/courtwatch/index.shtml. Court Watch is maintained by a public interest law firm and much of the focus is on Medicare/Medicaid and disability issues.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

Due to the innovative nature of the Internet and the constant interplay between technology and Intellectual Property law, it is not surprising that there are a number of sophisticated websites related to Intellectual Property law. In Appendix 1, we listed numerous web sites covering various topics under the umbrella of Intellectual Property law. We will not repeat those here, but instead, this section will provide a brief summary of a few of the most useful Intellectual Property sites.

One of the best Intellectual Property sites remains the Intellectual Property Information Mall, which is maintained by the Franklin Pierce Law Center. The Franklin Pierce IP Mall contains a good annotated guide to IP sites and links to a large number of IP resources. The site, which has been modified and reorganized, is now located at http://www.ipmall.fplc.edu/.

Another good site containing the latest Intellectual Property news is the combined Law.com/ Law News Network Intellectual Property website located at http://www.law.com/professionals/iplaw.html. In addition to a page dedicated to the latest news and judicial decisions, the Law.com site is also sub-divided into several Intellectual Property sub-specialty sections, including copyrights, patents, trademarks, trade secrets and rights of publicity, among others.

For recent Supreme Court decisions since May, 1990, from which you can search for cases relating to various forms of intellectual property, you can go to http://supct.law.cornell.edu/supct/topiclist.html. This site lists topics alphabetically and includes such topics as copyright, patent, trademark and infringement.

If you want to determine who owns a particular domain name, or whether a particular domain name may be available for use, there are a number of sites at your disposal. The Network Solutions "whois" database, accessible at http://www.networksolutions.com, is one source of free information regarding owners of generic top level domain names, including their listed names, addresses, and contact information. This same information can be found at the Register.com "whois" site, located at http://www.register.com/. The Register.com site also contains domain name registration information from country specific top level domains.

For the latest developments regarding the addition of new top level domains, the Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy, and related information, you can check out the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers’ website at http://www.icann.org. Among other information, the ICANN website also provides a searchable online database of UDRP domain name proceedings, as well as links to the various country-specific domains.

The United States Patent and Trademark Office’s web page, located at http://www.uspto.gov, provides a great deal of trademark and patent related information. The website has a search page, located at http://www.uspto.gov/web/menu/search.html, which provides access to free patent and trademark searching. For patent searching, the PTO’s website boasts a new-and-improved Full-Text Database for searching. In addition, for trademark searching, the PTO has a modified Trademark Electronic Search System ("TESS") with access to the PTO’s trademark database. The PTO website also features a variety of other resources relating to trademark and patent law, including general information about trademarks and patents and various forms required for PTO filings, along with PTO press releases and access to other useful information and materials.

The following sites provide helpful information about conducting patent searches: http://www.virtualpet.com/industry/howto/psearch.htm#data http://inventors.about.com/cs/patentsearches/ht/Patent_Search.htm.

There are also a number of good commercial sites for searching for both patent and trademark information. These include the MicroPatent page (http://www.micropat.com); Dialog (http://www.dialog.com); Lexis-Nexis (http://www.lexis.com); the IBM Delphion IP Network (http://www.delphion.com); Saegis (http://www.saegis.com); and AvantIQ (www.avantiq.com). However, many of these commercial sites are subscription services. In addition to providing commercial services, NameProtect (www.nameprotect.com) offers a free search tool available at http://www.nameprotect.com/html/services/tm/tm_research.html, which allows users to search for U.S. and Canadian trademarks and domain names.

For copyrights, The Library of Congress’ United States Copyright Office website, located at http://www.loc.gov/copyright, provides a number of resources regarding copyright law. The site includes a searchable database of Library of Congress copyright records. The U.S. Copyright Office site also contains access to information about copyright statutes and regulations, as well as proposed legislation. The site also contains copyright forms, answers to frequently asked questions, and information circulars and summaries of various aspects of copyright law.

There is also an interesting website, entitled "The Copyright Website", that was started in 1995 by an attorney in California, and is located at http://www.benedict.com. This website "endeavors to provide real world, practical and relevant copyright information", and "seeks to encourage discourse and invite solutions to the myriad of copyright tangles that currently permeate the Web". The site contains a discussion of different aspects of copyright law, including details of actual copyright disputes, accompanied by written and visual presentations of the various copyrighted works and issues involved in these disputes.

Finally, a comprehensive and useful presentation on trade secrets is provided by a Chicago lawyer at http://www.execpc.com/~mhallign/.

LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT LAW

There are numerous government, union, association and legal sites that can now be accessed on the World Wide Web. One of the better sites at which publications on labor and employment topics can be found is The Labor Lawyer site. The Labor Lawyer is published by the ABA Section on Labor and Employment Law and edited by students at the Syracuse University College of Law. It can be found at http://www.law.syr.edu/students/publications/laborlawyer/index.asp.

Another good site for finding statutory and case materials on various labor and employment issues is the Legal Information Institute at Cornell University. The employment law section can be found at http://wwwsecure.law.cornell.edu/topics/employment.html. The issues are broken down by category so that you can find links to labor and employment laws of the U.S. and of the 50 states. The site also provides access to information about cases, regulations and statutes pertaining to various topics such as employment discrimination, unemployment compensation, and workers compensation.

Another good site is provided by the United States Department of Labor, and can be found at http://www.dol.gov. The Department of Labor site is divided into a number of valuable sections, including a very good section on employment laws and regulations. Other useful sections of the Department of Labor website contain information about Department of Labor agencies and about available programs, statistics and data, as well as a library of related information and links to other websites. The DOL site also contains explanations of relevant statutes and regulations, along with enforcement guidelines and regulatory compliance assistance.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration also has an excellent website, accessible at http://www.osha.gov.The OSHA website contains a variety of information relating to workplace safety, including background OSHA information, as well as information relating to current news and events, and a library containing directives, manuals, statistics and other information. The website also contains pages relating to OSHA outreach and OSHA regulations and compliance. Additionally, there is another site devoted to international occupational safety and health issues maintained by the International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre. That site is located at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/norm, and includes its own search engine for searching the site.

There are also good websites related to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). One of the better sites is the Americans with Disabilities Act Document Center, which can be accessed at the following site: http://jan.wvu.edu/links/adalinks.htm/. The United States Department of Justice also maintains a website devoted to the ADA. This DOJ ADA webpage is located at http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/ada/adahom1.htm.

In addition, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission homepage contains a good deal of general information relating to employment law. The EEOC website, located at http://www.eeoc.gov, contains a number of valuable documents pertaining to its enforcement of the ADA and other relevant laws. The EEOC website is sub-divided into a variety of sections that include information on federal laws prohibiting discrimination, a question and answer series, general information about the EEOC, statistics, small business information, and policy guidance regarding applicable laws and regulations.

Various professional associations also maintain sites on the Internet devoted to Labor and Employment law issues. The ABA Section on Labor and Employment Law has a site at http://www.abanet.org/labor/home.html. Another good site is provided by Law.com and Law News Network, and can be found at http://www.law.com/professionals/emplaw.html. Finally, the National Employment Lawyers Association, an advocate of employee rights, operates a site with numerous links and cases on employment issues. The NELA site is located at http://www.nela.org.

Another good source of labor related information is the National Labor Relations Board website, which is located at http://www.nlrb.gov. The NLRB website features general information about the NLRB and NLRB press releases, as well as a weekly summary of the news, relevant rules and regulations, decisions, manuals, and related information.

Finally, nearly all of the major international unions maintain their own websites. For a comprehensive site providing links to both international and local union website, you can take a look at Union Web at http://www.unionweb.com. The American Federation of State and County Municipal Employees maintains a site that contains a section on "Workplace Issues" at http://www.afscme.org. Other major unions and organizations with a web presence include the AFL-CIO (see www.aflcio.org), the United Auto Workers (see http://www.uaw.org), the Teamsters (see http://www.teamster.org), the United Mine Workers of America (see http://www.umwa.org), and the American Federation of Teachers (see http://www.aft.org).

REAL ESTATE LAW

One of the better real estate collection of materials is maintained by Cornell University, located at http://wwwsecure.law.cornell.edu/topics/real_estate.html. The topics covered on the Cornell site include real estate transactions, landlord/tenant law and mortgages, among other areas of interest. These web pages also link to relevant statutory and case law materials.

A Philadelphia law firm, Pepper, Hamilton and Scheetz, currently maintains the Construction Law Review on legal issues pertaining to the construction industry. This site can be found at http://www.constructlaw.com/.

Another useful commercial website is found at http://www.homegain.com . This site features an instant electronic valuation of property, and related information.

Finally, the Hieros Gamos website, accessible at http://www.hg.org, is another good source of information pertaining to real estate law, both in the United States and internationally. The Hieros Gamos real estate section features a number of useful sub-sections featuring information on real estate development, commercial real estate, land use and landlord/tenant issues. The site also contains materials on related topics such as real estate credit, natural resources, and real estate tax and environmental law, among other areas of interest.

TAX LAW

There are several very good tax law sites that are available. For example, two such sites were created by tax attorneys and contain a wealth of information and helpful links. These sites are The Tax Prophet� (see http://www.taxprophet.com) and the Harter, Secrest & Emery tax department site (see http://www.hsetax.com).

A comprehensive tax link portal can be found at http://www.taxsites.com. This site provides a wealth of resources for tax professionals, accountants, and even human resources professionals. The number of links in each category is impressive and belies the site’s plain presentation.

The Hieros Gamos website at http://www.hg.org also has a very good tax section. The Hieros Gamos tax section contains a useful guide to taxation law, covering both individual and business taxation issues, and including a focus on international tax law and applicable treaties. The Hieros Gamos tax section also features a daily Taxation News service, as well as a separate sub-section on E-commerce taxation issues.

Another useful tax site can be found at http://www.findlaw.com. The Findlaw taxation section has an emphasis on tax issues facing businesses, and is particularly geared toward small businesses.

Additionally, for statutes and case law relating to income tax, property tax and estate and gift tax law, Cornell’s Legal Information Institute site is also a good resource. The Cornell income tax related materials can be found at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/income_tax.html, along with links to materials relating to property taxes. The Cornell website tax law section also provides materials for estate and gift taxes, which are located at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/estate_gift_tax.html.

Yahoo also maintains government law, tax, federal and state law search sites (see http://www.yahoo.com/Government/U_S_Government/Law/Tax).

Finally, the Internal Revenue Service website, located at http://www.irs.gov, contains forms and various tax information and pointers for both businesses and individuals. The IRS also includes information about tax filing, including the filing of tax returns over the telephone and online computer filing of tax forms. Additionally, the IRS website provides access to U.S. tax regulations, as well as statistics, an IRS newsstand, information about appealing IRS decisions, and links to other relevant websites in the field of tax.

APPENDIX 3: Bacal's List of Some Good Books About the Internet

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